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The Use-Case for Smart Street Lighting

November 3, 2022

As Smart Connected Cities grow and develop globally (with climate action and safety initiatives being push forward), new methods for information collection, safety monitoring, and renewable energy use are of great value. The primary benefits of Smart Street Lighting are to provide lighting adapted to the movements in a city while having a bird’s eye view of the surroundings, connecting streetlights across a city or region. They provide an optimised lighting services, according to movements and traffic, using electricity more efficiently and collecting data to be used to improve transport networks and traffic safety. Here we also discuss the value of the Smart City network enabled by Smart Lighting solutions such as those from Tondo.

This helpful paper provides a quick, basic overview of the use-case for Smart Street Lighting. It includes information helpful for organizational leadership to develop their own internal business cases.

It does fail to detail one key decision driver for Smart Street Lighting, which is the enablement of the Smart City network.

Light poles and control cabinets are everywhere people live, work, and where the vehicles travel that transport them. Control cabinets are used to power groups of lighting poles, but have been more recently displaced by Smart Lighting controllers on each lamp. This enables a finer degree of control – and remote control – over each individual light.

Smart Lighting solutions such as Tondo’s also create a city-scale network that supports sensors and devices such as video cameras and smart energy meters. it is this “Smart Network” that is necessary for a Smart City to function.

A complete use-case for Smart Street Lighting must take into account the enablement of the Smart Network for Smart Cities. It also introduces critical requirements for a Smart Lighting solution that include, but are not limited to:

  • Secure – any “network” transmitting information and capable of controlling critical infrastructure must meet the strongest possible cybersecurity standards, validated by independent standards and testing.
  • Future-Proofed – critical infrastructure is expected to have long lifecycles of 5 to 10 years, as the cost of replacement at city-scale can be enormous. This requires the ability to support new standards and functionality that does not yet exist or that may change frequently.
  • Simple – deployment costs between different Smart Lighting solutions can vary widely. Costs can range from $50 – $150 USD per pole to dispatch a truck with a lighting technician, depending on the location, availability of resources, the method of installation, and the amount of time required at the top of the pole.
  • Open Standards Based – cities and organizations must avoid vendor lock-in and the risk of future economic hold-up problems based on proprietary technologies. Open standards technologies at every point in the solution chain will enable organizations to leverage greater buyer power, and put the onus on the vendors to innovate in order to obtain and retain their business.
  • Beyond Lighting – outdoor lighting control is one of many Smart City applications, and its electrification and “capillary” nature throughout the city makes it an ideal platform for the Smart Network. The development of a flexible Smart City network requires a platform that supports sensors, cameras, meters, and other devices. This requires a city-scale platform that can support many times the number of devices than there are light poles in the city.
  • Automation – the large number of devices on the Smart City network will require much greater automation facilitated by artificial intelligence technologies that include machine learning, reasoning and heuristics, image recognition, natural language processing, and more.
  • Edge-Computing – with these advanced applications on the Smart City network, we will need advanced computing power at the “edge” – where the devices are located – so that we minimize the amount of data that must be transmitted over the network and the associated costs.
  • Cloud Native – cloud native platforms mean that the platforms are created from the very beginning to operate in any type of cloud. That can be a public cloud (shared cloud with multiple organizations), a private cloud (a dedicated cloud for one organization), or a hybrid cloud (a combination of public and private clouds). It is also important to avoid lock-in to a specific cloud host: at Tondo, we use AWS but we also believe our customers should have a choice, and we have architected our Cloud-IQ management platform to provide our customers that choice.

At Tondo, we are committed to these principles in our product designs. We are also committed to making these concepts easy for our customers to understand and committed to providing the information they need to make the best decisions for their organizations.

GIHUB-Smart-Street-Lighting-Use-Case

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The Business Case for Smart Street Lighting as the Smart City Network

For owners and managers of street and area lighting to make informed decisions about a Smart Lighting or Smart City sensor project, they need high quality, reliable information to support their business cases. Until now, most of this information has either been scattered across a vast number of sources or buried by blog posts filled with unsourced information.
This article is intended to provide a supportable, accurate framework to help answer the question, “Why should our organization care about Smart Lighting or Smart City networks?”

Factors Affecting Perceived Safety in Railway Stations

Feeling safe in public transport is essential for mobility, and fear of crime can be a larger problem for the individual than crime itself.

Among the most important characteristics affecting passengers’ safety are lighting, surveillance, other persons’ behaviour, time of day, and one’s own gender.

Creating safe spaces for railway and public transit facilitates increased use, which has follow-on socio-economic benefits for cities.

Designing and Implementing Advanced and Efficient Roadway Lighting

This 2016 paper by Adam Sedziwy and Leszek Kotulski is an essential for street lighting designers and engineers. The authors propose methodologies that drive savings by LED retrofit projects, advanced (aka Smart) lighting control and design, and operational & management cost savings available from advanced networked lighting systems.

Reducing Crime with Street Lighting in New York City

We find evidence that communities that were assigned more lighting ex- perienced sizable reductions in crime. After accounting for potential spatial spillovers, we find that the provision of street lights led, at a minimum, to a 36 percent reduction in nighttime outdoor index crimes.

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A pie chart comparing the benefits of an LED retrofit project to Smart Lighting and Smart City Network projects

Tondo Smart Lighting also creates an open standards-based Smart City network for connecting sensors and other wireless and wired devices to Tondo's Cloud-IQ management platform.

This can reduce sensor and device deployment costs by 80% or more versus proprietary networks or individual cellular connections, with a 3.5x or greater benefit versus your LED retrofit project, and 7x over Smart Lighting alone.

A chart describing examples of the cost components of for different types of street light dimming control versus dusk-to-dawn and always-on lighting.

Smart Lighting enables organizations to specify the light levels set by national standards, as well as vehicle, cyclist, and pedestrian demand, or based on safety and security data for a given area.

This not only reduces lighting costs, but improves the quality of light when it is needed.

Normally open(NO) and Normally closed (NC) are terms used to define the states that switches, sensors or relay contacts are under when they are not activated.

A NO contact or a normally open contact is the one that remains open until a certain condition is satisfied such as a button being pressed or some other manner of activation such as those based on temperature, pressure, etc.

A NC contact or normally closed contact is the exact opposite of NO contact by function. It remains closed until a certain condition is satisfied.

Lighting control cabinets typically control a group of street lights or advertising signage from a "control cabinet". These controls have historically provided on-off functionality based on the time of day using an "astronomical clock"-based switch or daylight photosensor. Lights are controlled in groups with no individual control over a specific light.

Although new controllers such as Tondo's Edge-IQ controller have replaced the cabinet-based approach with new technologies that include advanced dimming, remote cloud-control, and support for functionality including sensors and switches, there are many outdoor lights and signs that do not support on-lamp control. Tondo's Cabinet-IQ controller provides new advanced IoT technology support for existing cabinet-controlled lighting.

CAT-M/LTE-M and NB-IoT are similar but have differences that may make one suitable over another, or simply selected based on the support for one or the other that is available in your area.

NB-IoT uses a narrow bandwidth of 200 kHz, where CAT-M uses 1.4 MHz. The maximum data rate for NB-IoT is ~ 250 kb per second, with CAT-M1 reaching ~ 1 Mbps. CAT-M is marginally less energy efficient than NB-IoT. Although NB-IoT has a lower speed, both NB-IoT and CAT-M are suitable for sensor communications since sensors typically do not require much bandwidth.

Both NB-IoT and CAT-M1 are supported under the 5G technology specifications and therefore are ideal for selecting as a standard for sensor communications.

 

CAT-M wireless (aka LTE-M) is a low-power wide area network (LPWAN) cellular data transmission standard that operates over the data and physical layer. CAT-M was designed for IoT projects, with an average upload speed between 200 kbps and 400 kbps.

Eddystone is an open-source Bluetooth advertising protocol originally designed by Google. It can be used by mobile device applications to deliver improved proximity-based experiences that include applications such as Google Maps.

These packets can be discovered with any Bluetooth LE APIs such as Core Bluetooth on iOS, or android.bluetooth.le on Android. You can also use them with Google’s Nearby Messages API, which can be integrated into an iOS or Android app, and receive “messages” in those apps when a person enters or exits a range of beacons.

You can read more about it on github.com/google/eddystone.

Source: The calculation for the addressable U.S. market is based on the US Department of Energy 2015 U.S. Lighting Market Characterization, issued November 2018

The 2022 estimate is calculated for each lighting category measured by the US DOE by applying the market growth factors for each category between 2015 and 2021 based on U.S. Census data.

The full Excel data set that accompanies this report can be downloaded here.

A RESTful API is an architectural style for an application program interface (API) that uses HTTP requests to access and use data.

The API spells out the proper way for a developer to write a program requesting services from an operating system or other application.

You can read more from the source of this definition at TechTarget here.

A DIN rail is a metal rail of a standard type widely used for mounting circuit breakers and industrial control equipment inside equipment racks.

IP stands for "ingress protection". For IP67, this means:

"6" describes protection of solid particles: No ingress of dust; complete protection against contact (dust-tight). A vacuum must be applied. Test duration of up to 8 hours based on airflow.

"7" describes the protection from water: Ingress of water in harmful quantity shall not be possible when the enclosure is immersed in water under defined conditions of pressure and time (up to 1 meter (3 ft 3 in) of submersion). Test duration: 30 minutes.

Modbus is a data communications protocol originally published in 1979. Modbus has become a de facto standard communication protocol and is now a commonly available means of connecting and communicating with industrial electronic devices.

Read more about MODBUS here.

RS-485, also known as TIA-485(-A) or EIA-485, is a serial communications standard.

Electrical signalling is balanced, and multipoint systems are supported. Digital communications networks implementing the standard can be used effectively over long distances and in electrically noisy environments.

This table describes the differences between 3G, 4G, and 5G cellular communications standards.

4G devices will work on 4G LTE networks and the earlier cellular technologies, including 3G, EGPRS, and 2G.

Smart city sensors require very little bandwidth, and 3G EGPRS and 4G LTE can easily support the required data rates.

5G networks are relatively new, and most 5G deployments use a combination of 4G and 5G networks.

 

A diagram describing the DALI smart lighting control system

DALI-2 refers to the latest version of the DALI protocol. While DALI version 1 only included control gear, DALI-2 includes control devices such as application controllers and input devices (e.g. sensors), as well as bus power supplies.

Read more at the DALI Alliance website: Compare DALI v1 vs DALI v2

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Zhaga Book 18 describes a smart interface between outdoor luminaires and sensing/ communication nodes.

Zhaga Book 18 allows any certified node to operate with any certified luminaire. Certified luminaires and sensing / communication modules are available from multiple suppliers, establishing an ecosystem of compatible products.

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The NEMA ANSI C137.4-2021 builds on the NEMA C137.41 7-pin connector standard and the DALI communication protocol. It has additional characteristics and features that align very closely with the D4i family of specifications from the DALI Alliance.

D4i and ANSI C137.4-2021 specify the digital communication between luminaires and devices including sensors and network lighting controllers. The expanded ANSI C137.4-2021 now includes energy reporting data and diagnostics and maintenance data.

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The NEMA ANSI C137.10 standard specifies roadway and area lighting equipment connector compatibility. The 3-pin standard does not provide for dimming control, but provides for on/off operation. The later standard C137.41 adds dimming control (5- and 7-pin connectors) and sensor control (7-pin connectors). The newer C137.4-2021 standard provides enhanced functionality and compatibility with the DALI D4i lighting and sensor control standard.

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The NEMA ANSI C137.41 standard specifies covers roadway and area lighting equipment connection interoperability. The 7-pin receptacle provides for dimming control and sensor communications.

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The NEMA ANSI C137.41 5-pin connector variant adds support for dimming control, but does not include sensor communications support which is supported by the 7-pin connector.

DALI, or Digital Addressable Lighting Interface, is a dedicated protocol for digital lighting control that enables the easy installation of robust, scalable and flexible lighting networks.

Wiring is relatively simple; DALI power and data is carried by the same pair of wires, without the need for a separate bus cable.

Read more at the DALI Alliance website: Introduction to DALI

The TALQ Consortium has established a globally accepted standard for management software interfaces to configure, command, control and monitor heterogeneous outdoor device networks (ODN) including smart street lighting.

This way interoperability between Central Management Software (CMS) and Outdoor Device Networks (ODN, so called ‘gateways’) for smart city applications from different vendors is enabled, such that a single CMS can control different ODNs in different parts of a city or region.

Read more at the TALQ website

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D4i is the DALI standard for intelligent, IoT-ready luminaires.

By taking care of control and power requirements, D4i makes it much easier to mount sensors and communication devices on luminaires. In addition, intelligent D4i LED drivers inside the luminaire have the capability to store and report a wide range of luminaire, energy and diagnostics data in a standardized format.

Infographic of Bluetooth Technology Global Standards

Highly reliable hardware, firmware, and software components that perform specific, critical security functions. Because roots of trust are inherently trusted, they must be secure by design. Roots of trust provide a firm foundation from which to build security and trust.

Read more at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Roots of Trust

The 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 accuracy class electricity meters established within ANSI C12.20-2015 are accurate to within +/-0.1%, +/-0.2%, and +/-0.5% of true value at a full load.

Read more at the ANSI Blog: ANSI C12.20-2015 – Electricity Meters – 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 Accuracy Classes.

Source: US Department of Energy 2015 U.S. Lighting Market Characterization, issued November 2018

The full Excel data set that accompanies this report can be downloaded here.

Tondo uses the ARM Cryptocell 310 cryptographic chip. Read more about the ARM 300 family here: ARM Cryptocell 300 Family Overview

The world would collectively achieve 10,546 TWh of energy savings by 2030 [with energy efficient lighting], a sum comparable to over 40% of the world electricity generation in 2011. Saving this amount of energy would prevent the emissions of 5,400 Mt CO2, a figure equivalent
to over 15% of the global emissions in 2011.

Source: United Nations Environment Programme (2014). Green Paper - Policy Options to Accelerate the Global Transition to Advanced Lighting.

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